Palma , sometimes referenced as Palma de Mallorca, is a city and municipality Spanish capital of the island of Mallorca and the autonomous community of the Balearic Islands . It is also the seat of judicial party number three of the province and of the diocese of Mallorca . It is located in the western part of the Mediterranean Sea and, within the island, to the southwest. It is located about 250 km east of the Iberian Peninsula .
Its municipal area covers an area of 208.63 km² that extends between the Na Burguesa mountain range and the Prado de Sant Jordi . The city is located in the center of the bay of Palma , about 13 meters above sea level. Several torrents , such as La Riera , or Gros, flow through it into the Mediterranean .
With 434 516 inhabitants ( INE January 2017), Palma is the eighth largest city in Spain by population and the first of the Balearic Islands .In addition, its metropolitan area includes nine localities that reach 560 240 inhabitants spread over an area of 1015.88 km², being the 14th of Spain.
It was founded with the name of Palma by the Roman consul Quinto Cecilio Melelo Baleárico in the year 123 a. C. It is estimated that its current settlement possibly corresponds to the Roman ruins that lie beneath its historic center, although there is still no irrefutable evidence. November December After other conquests by Vandals and the Arabs in 903 , was finally conquered by King James I of Aragon the 31 of December of 1229 , becoming the prosperous Ciutat de Mallorcacapital of his own kingdom , which declined after its incorporation to the Crown of Aragon in 1279 .
In 1715 the Decrees of New Plant came into force , recovering the city its Roman toponym, Palma. Soon after, in the twentieth century , was the protagonist of the explosion of an intense tourist boom that used it as a holiday destination during the 1960s and 1970s. Today it is a remarkable economic and cultural center at the island and regional level.
The Romans founded a city of provinces with the name of Palma the 123 a. C. Its present settlement probably corresponds to the Roman ruins that are under the historic center , although there is still no irrefutable evidence. November December was Alcántara Peña first pointed this location, because until now it was believed that the old Palma could have been located in areas of Sa Carrotja ( Ses Salines ) or S’Horta de’n Palmer ( Campos ) , due to the discovery of the remains of a necropolis , and remains of ceramics, tombstones and funeral urns. To the names of the two main Roman cities in Mallorca, Palma and Pollentia, scholars have given them “militaristic, triumphalist, augural, etc. connotations”, interpreting Palma as “palmas del triunfo” and relating it to Pollentia , which means ” superiority ‘or’ power ‘, although the relationship between the two names could be of a totally different nature.
Throughout the twentieth century Palma has had a very intense urban development due to the continuous increase in population, which went from 63 937 inhabitants in the year 1900 to 333 925 in the year 2000 . Increase that came from the vegetative growth and immigration coming mainly from other localities of the island. The center of Palma is an urban mosaic where the historical heritage is surrounded by a network of narrow, largely pedestrian streets. From the nineteenth century and especially the twentieth century, the city began to overflow the perimeter of the wall. Progressively neighborhoods were established that increased their population and that moved away from the center and that are characterized by their differences in terms of population and facilities.
The climate of Palma de Mallorca is Mediterranean subtropical in general, giving the Csa climate ( Mediterranean climate ) in the city , with an average temperature of 18.2 ° C. The outskirts of the city, such as Palma Airport, have BSk climates ( cold semi-arid climate). In addition, the Mediterranean climate of Csa type also occurs in some places of the municipality with greater precipitation, especially in the outskirts of the city and in the zones of greater altitude.
The thermal variation of its waters has an amplitude of around 15 ° C. During the winter it drops to around 13 ° C. Snowfalls are occasional, with frost being more frequent. At the end of spring there is a warming that raises the temperature by one degree each week. During the summer there is a surface layer of 25 cm that gets to heat above 25 ° C (something like a thermocline ).
The demographic growth of Palma has been spectacular in recent years: while from 1981 to 1996 it hardly increased by 15,000 inhabitants, going from 290,372 to 304,250. In the last five years it has grown by 30,000, currently with more of 400 000, being the eighth city of Spain in number of inhabitants, behind Madrid , Barcelona , Valencia , Seville , Zaragoza , Malaga and Murcia . It surpassed the population of Bilbao in 2001 and that of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria in 2006 .
The two main engines of the economy are tourism and construction, having relegated to second place the industry and the primary sector ( agriculture , livestock , fishing , mining ). The hospitality industries are among the first in Spain and even the entire world. The areas with the highest number of tourists are Playa de Palma and the city center .
The tourism is the main economic activity in Mallorca and, therefore, in Palma. All its economy depends, directly or indirectly, on tourist activities in the largest of the Balearic Islands. The beginnings of tourism date back to the early twentieth century , with the founding of the Tourism Promotion of Mallorca and the Official Chamber of Commerce, Industry and Navigation of the Balearic Islands. The type of tourism that characterizes it is that of sun and beach , due to the large number of beaches that the island has and the temperatures of its Mediterranean climate . The city also has a wide network of bars and restaurantsand private means to facilitate knowledge of the city, such as horse-drawn carriages or panoramic buses.
Monuments and places of interest
- The Spanish Village is located in the neighborhood of Son Espanyolet. Spanish village : it was built during the 1960s by the architect Fernando Chueca Goitia in the neighborhood of Son Espanyolet . It was conceived as a town in which it was intended to gather the main characteristics of the peoples of Spain . At present it competes with that of Barcelona for being the best Spanish town in Spain.
- Cathedral of Santa María de Palma : popularly known as La Seu , is located on the shores of the bay of Palma , next to the park of the sea . It owns the highest ship of Spain and the second one of Europe , only surpassed by the Cathedral of Beauvais . It has a recognized fame for possessing one of the largest rosettes of the Levantine Gothic style , becoming locally known and erroneously as the Eye of the Gothic , since in this last period there are cathedrals with larger rosettes. It is the only cathedral in the world that projects its reflection on the water of the sea.
- Bellver Castle : it is the only round medieval castle in Spain and the first to be built in Europe , on the continent there are only three castles with a circular floor dating back to that time.
- Castillo de San Carlos : is a small artillery castle located at the entrance to the port of Palma built for the defense of it. It is currently inside the naval base of Portopí and houses the Military Historical Museum of the city.
- Arab baths : they are one of the few vestiges of the Muslim architecture conserved in the island. It is a square surface room with 12 columns that support a dome with several round openings. This room was intended for hot baths and for this it had a double floor with holes through which circulated hot water and steam.
- Palace of the Almudaina : it is the Real Palace or Real Alcazar of the city and one of the residences of the Spanish Royal Family , managed by the public National Heritage body . It was known until 1309 as Zuda , but was rebuilt by Jaime II of Mallorca , according to the model of the Royal Palace of Perpignan.
- Plaza Mayor : is one of the main squares of Palma. It was built during the nineteenth century on the site until then occupied by the Convent of San Felipe Neri and some neighboring buildings. In her they are born important routes of the center of Palm like San Miguel or Columbus .
- Consulado del Mar : is located on the Sagrera promenade , very close to the port . It was the seat of a medieval legal-mercantile homonymous institution , formed by a Prior and several Consuls whose jurisdiction was similar to the current mercantile courts. It is currently the headquarters of the Ministry of the Presidency of the Government of the Balearic Islands.
- Lonja de Palma de Mallorca : the Lonja de Palma or, as it is popularly known, Sa Llojta is one of the masterpieces of Gothic architecture in Mallorca. It was built by the architect Guillem Sagrera between 1420 and 1452 and was the headquarters of the Merchants’ College.
- Convent of San Francisco : the convent of San Francisco is a group formed by the church , the cloister and several attached buildings. Its construction began in the late thirteenth century .
- Church of Santa Eulalia : the church of Santa Eulalia is located in the old part of the city. In this temple was crowned King of Mallorca Jaime II on September 12 , 1276 . The church consists of three naves , with the central one being the highest, with two access doors. The bell tower , dating from the nineteenth century , is high altitude and its capital is pointed.
- Palacio March : is a palace located in the historic center of Palma, next to the cathedral and La Almudaina. Its construction began in 1939 and was inaugurated in 1945 . It is currently an art museum that houses the Bartolomé March Foundation, created in 1975 by Bartolomé March.
- Gran Hotel : it is a modernist construction by the architect Lluís Domènech i Montaner, completed in 1903 . It has currently been converted into the headquarters of the La Caixa Foundation . 141
Parliament of the Balearic Islands : it was built in 1848 on the former site of the convent of the Dominicans by the architect Antoni Sureda i Villalonga. At that time it was the headquarters of the Círculo Mallorquín (the current plenary room was a dance hall). Since 1983 it has been the seat of the legislative power of the Balearic Islands . It is located on Calle Conquistador, near the cathedral. 146
Insular Council of Mallorca : the building of the Insular Council of Mallorca was built to house the former Provincial Council . This construction, which was commissioned to the architect Joaquín Pavía, involved the total remodeling of the building of the old prison in the city.
- Town hall : the Town Hall or Town Hall of Palma ( Ajuntament de Palma in Catalan ) is the building where the maximum institution of the municipality is located, it is located in the Plaza de Cort . 141
Pilar and Joan Miró Foundation: cultural foundation dedicated to modern art, installed next to Son Abrines, the residence of the painter Joan Miró . It includes two workshops, gardens with murals and sculptures, as well as a legacy of 6000 works by the artist, exhibited on a rotating basis. The complex integrates two important buildings: the Taller Sert by Josep Lluís Sert (1956), and the Moneo Building by Rafael Moneo (1992).